Measles is a leading cause of vaccine-preventable childhood mortality.
Worldwide, the fatality rate has been significantly reduced by a vaccination campaign led by partners in the Measles Initiative: the American Red Cross, the United States' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the United Nations Foundation, UNICEF and the WHO.
Risk factors for measles virus infection include immunodeficiency caused by HIV or AIDS, Clinical diagnosis of measles requires a history of fever of at least three days, with at least one of the three C's (cough, coryza, conjunctivitis).
Observation of Koplik's spots is also diagnostic of measles.
Complications with measles are relatively common, ranging from mild complications such as diarrhea to serious complications such as pneumonia (either direct viral pneumonia or secondary bacterial pneumonia), bronchitis (either direct viral bronchitis or secondary bacterial bronchitis), otitis media, Humans are the only natural hosts of the virus, and no other animal reservoirs are known to exist.
This highly contagious virus is spread by coughing and sneezing via close personal contact or direct contact with secretions.
However, no specific global target date for eradication has yet been agreed to as of May 2010.
In 2013–14 there were almost 10,000 cases in 30 European countries.
Any contact with an infected person, including semen through sex, saliva, or mucus, can cause infection.
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has long recommended that all adult international travelers who do not have positive evidence of previous measles immunity receive two doses of MMR vaccine before traveling.
Despite this, a retrospective study of pre-travel consultations with prospective travelers at CDC-associated travel clinics found that of the 16% of adult travelers who were considered eligible for vaccination, only 47% underwent vaccination during the consultation; of these, patient refusal accounted for nearly half (48%), followed by healthcare provider decisions (28%) and barriers in the health system (24%). Most people with uncomplicated measles will recover with rest and supportive treatment.
Patients who become sicker may be developing medical complications.
Some people will develop pneumonia as a consequence of infection with the measles virus.